Shoreline Protection Stabilization Techniques
Geosynthetics is a famous product in the Engineering world. This product, derived from a polymeric element, is normally utilized on significant structure components to achieve engineering purposes.
The prefix “geo” signifies that this product has a lot to do with certain geological materials such as rocks, soil, and earth.
A geosynthetic product arrives with several functions, i.e., reinforcement, separation, drainage, containment, barrier, and the management of land erosion, involving any other function a geosynthetic material is supposed to have.
10 Ways in which Geosynthetics is used for Ground Improvement
Geo-textiles are indeed textiles in a traditional approach but comprise synthetic fibers rather than natural ones such as cotton, wool, and silk. Thus bio-degradation is not an issue. The main point is that they are porous to water flow across their manufactured plane and as well as within their plane but to a broadly varying degree. Geo-textile Polymer is produced from polyester or polypropylene. Polypropylene is a material gentler than water (it has a particular gravity of 0.9).
Geo-grids are plastics formed into a much open netlike configuration. Single or Multi-layer materials are typically made by extruding and lengthening high-density polyethylene or by weaving or stitching the polypropylene. The resulting grid structure possesses large openings known as apertures. These apertures improve the interaction with the soil and aggregate. It is better soil and aggregate reinforcement because of its good tensile strength and rigidity.
Geonets are stacked crisscrossing polymer strands that give in-plane drainage. The geonets are all produced of polyethylene. The molted polymer is extruded via slits in counter rotating-dies, forming a matrix or a net of nearly spaced “stacked” strands. When strand layers are two it is known as “bi-planar” and three layers of the strand are known as “tri-planar”.
Geocomposites are geotextile filters encompassing a geonet. A Few of the functions of the geocomposites are blanket drains, panel drains, edge drains and wick drains. Blanket drains are generally utilized as Leachate, Infiltration collection, and removal layers internally in the landfill. Panel drains are placed adjacent to the structure to lessen the hydrostatic pressure. Edge drains are utilized adjacent to pavement structures which helps collect and eliminate lateral seepage from the road base.
Geomembranes are resistant thin sheets of rubber or plastic material mainly used for linings and covers of liquid/ solid-storage impoundments. Thus the principle function is always as a liquid or vapor barrier. They are around impermeable when compared to soils or geotextiles.
6. GEOSYNTHETIC CLAY LINERS
Geosynthetic clay liners (GCLs) involve a thin layer of finely-ground bentonite clay. The clay rises and becomes a much more effective hydraulic barrier when wetted. GCLs are produced by sandwiching the bentonite within or layering it on geotextiles and/or geomembranes. The bondings of the layers are completed with stitching, needling, and/or chemical plaster.
Geo-foam is a newer kind of geosynthetic product. It is a generic name for any foam element utilized for geotechnical applications. Geofoam is produced in large blocks which are stacked to form a lightweight and thermally insulating mass buried beneath the soil or pavement structure. The most common kind of polymer used in the manufacturing of geofoam material is polystyrene. The applications of geofoams are cited below:
It is utilized within soil embankments built over soft and weak soils
Utilized under roads, airfield pavements, and railway track structures which are subjected to excessive freeze-thaw conditions
Utilized beneath on-grade storage tanks including cold liquids
Another important product that has been adopted as a geosynthetic is plastic pipe. The specific polymer resins that are employed in the manufacturing of plastic pipes are high-density polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride, polypropylene (PP), polybutylene (PB), acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS), and cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB).
9. TURF REINFORCEMENT MATS
Turf reinforcement mats (TRMs) are 3-dimensional structures created of fused polymer nettings, randomly laid monofilaments, or yarns woven or tufted into an open and compactly stable mat. Erosion protection can be increased by adopting these Mats, which can provide much more protection compared to that of plants grown typically. Proven performance has resulted in the wide use and assured the acceptance of TRMs as a permanent, cost-effective, and eco-friendly alternative to hard armor erosion protection solutions like concrete and riprap.
3-D honey comb like structures contained with soil, rock, and concrete. They are composed of strips of polymer sheets/ geotextiles, connected at staggered points to make a large honeycomb mat when its strips are pulled isolated. Geo-cells were manufactured from a novel polymeric alloy known as Neoloy. The geocell with a greater elastic modulus has a stiffness of the reinforced base and higher bearing ability. Geo-cells produced from NPA are found to be significantly better in stiffness, ultimate bearing ability, and reinforcement relative to geocells created from HDPE.